Federal Party Survey on Environmental Platforms
2021 Canadian Federal Election
In anticipation of the need to bring forth important issues facing Canadians today – environmental protection, economic justice and human rights – a questionnaire representing the collective priorities of 12 leading environmental organizations was sent to Canada’s five main political parties in August 2021. The following are the official responses from the political parties surveyed. Please note that the parties’ responses were published as submitted and have not been assessed or checked for accuracy. 

For the summary of party responses, click here.
This website is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to support or oppose, to promote or show disapproval of a platform, or to endorse or reject a party or any measures recommended by it. Please note that the parties’ responses were published as submitted and have not been assessed or checked for accuracy. This includes their self-assessment of whether they are responding “yes”, “no” or “partial” to each question in the summary page.
  1. Will you implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?
    Parties were asked
    Will you implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Bloc Québécois considers that indigenous peoples have inherent rights, including the right to self-determination. We were early supporters of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Our political party has been putting pressure on the Conservative and Liberal governments since 2007 to adopt and recognize the rights of indigenous peoples. After more than a decade of effort on our part, the Canadian Parliament finally ratified the Declaration. The time has now come to fully implement it. The First Nations, Métis and Inuit communities can count on the Bloc Québécois to be their unwavering ally each time they need to exercise their rights, and we will require Ottawa to step up the pace to sign the Declaration.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    Canada’s Conservatives support the aspirations and goals of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). We are committed to respecting treaty rights and to the process of reconciliation with the Indigenous peoples of Canada. UNDRIP has affirmed the right of Indigenous communities to pursue economic opportunities and benefit from the development of resources on their traditional territories. Conservatives believe that the path to reconciliation includes taking meaningful action to improve the lives of Indigenous peoples by ensuring that they are able to fully participate in Canada’s economy.

    We also believe that we must develop a common understanding of what concepts like free, prior, and informed consent mean in Canadian law. There is currently a lack of consensus in the legal community, and without a common understanding we risk creating uncertainty and misunderstanding in the future. The lack of clarity and common understanding of these concepts threatens to turn back the clock on reconciliation and dismantle the hard work by Indigenous leaders across the country.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Green Party of Canada is committed to implementing UNDRIP for those First Nations who support it. We believe that every nation has a right to decide who will speak on its behalf, and the government of Canada must be led by Indigenous Peoples with respect to designing any UNDRIP legislation. Several First Nations have told us that their involvement was not sought in the development of Bill C-15, and that their views on the proposed legislation were not solicited.

     

    A Green government would ensure that all First Nations are thoroughly involved in the development and design of UNDRIP implementation legislation. We would also ensure that any Nations who do not support UNDRIP would not have it imposed upon them. The Green Party of Canada is committed to Reconciliation, Nation-to-Nation engagement and self-determination for Indigenous Peoples, and seeks to live by those principles not just through words, but through action. Greens believe that Canada has a long way to go to ensure justice for Indigenous Peoples – being guided by their leadership is an important place to start.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, or UNDRIP, provides a road map to advance lasting reconciliation with Indigenous peoples. That’s why we passed legislation to implement UNDRIP here in Canada. A re-elected Liberal government will:
     
    • Take a whole-of-government approach to implementing UNDRIP by including in the requirement to implement UNDRIP in all cabinet minister’s mandate letters and ensure their offices and ministries work alongside Indigenous peoples to advance their rights; and
    • Deliver an Action Plan, within two years, in collaboration with Indigenous peoples on how Canada will achieve the objectives of UNDRIP and take all measures necessary to align federal laws with it. The action plan would include measures to:
      • Address injustices, combat prejudice and eliminate all forms of violence, racism and discrimination against Indigenous peoples; Promote mutual respect and understanding, as well as good relations, including through human rights education; and
      • Ensure Canada is held accountable through regular reporting and oversight.
     

    Undertaking this work will be broad and inclusive, and include national and regional Indigenous organizations, Indigenous rights holders, modern treaty and self-governing nations, women’s and youth organizations, 2SLGBTQQIA+ Indigenous persons, urban Indigenous people and other identified Indigenous groups. UNDRIP will be a critical tool in our collective efforts to advance the implementation of Indigenous rights, as well as address the legacies of colonialism, systemic racism and discrimination faced by Indigenous peoples in Canada.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    In partnership with Indigenous peoples, a New Democrat government will fully implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (UNDRIP)’s 94 Calls to Action. To develop a meaningful roadmap in achieving the calls to action, a NDP government will pass legislation to establish a National Council for Reconciliation that provides oversight and accountability on the process as well as a National Action Plan for Reconciliation in collaboration with Indigenous peoples.

     

    These efforts will build on the immense work done by former NDP MP, Romeo Saganash, who first introduced legislation (bill C-262) to ensure that Canada aligns its laws with UNDRIP in 2016. Bill C-262 unfortunately never became law because it was held up in the Senate and failed to receive prioritized support from the Liberals and Conservatives.

  2. Will you commit to a green and just pandemic recovery? Parties were asked

    Will you commit to a green and just recovery that makes climate and nature action a priority for pandemic recovery spending?

    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Québec depends on forestry. Canada depends on oil. Whereas the Liberal Party is promising to plant trees so that it can extract and export more oil and gas, the Bloc Québécois is working on supporting the development of sustainable forestry. We are focusing on knowledge and innovation to accelerate the transition to a green economy and economic and social development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

     

    To transform our economy and develop our growth sectors, the necessary economic recovery following the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is the perfect opportunity to make the right types of investments. To make sure the dollars the government will be investing in the economic recovery enable a green transition, the wealth and economic growth they create must lead to a reduction in environmental impacts and GHG emissions generated by economic activity. Generating wealth while reducing the impact on the environment is a prerequisite to truly talking about a green recovery. The government must determine the appropriate growth indicators as quickly as possible to decouple economic growth from environmental harm. That is why the Bloc Québécois unveiled its post-COVID Recovery Plan in early September 2020.

     

    The result of an extensive Québec-wide consultation, the Bloc Québécois’ plan called for a federal transfer of funds to Québec to help combat COVID-19 in the province’s areas of jurisdiction. It also involved an ambitious green recovery program with a regional focus. The federal government must assume its fair share in funding the green recovery in Québec by using the Bloc’s Recovery Plan as a basis and by recognizing that Québec is in charge of the protection of public health and the environment as well as the economic recovery strategy.

     

    To be able to carry out its parliamentary work and continue monitoring federal climate-related decisions, the Bloc Québécois needs to be able to count on the vigilance and expertise of ecologically minded Quebecers and on our environmental organizations. The previous government regularly put forward actions or policies that were made to look like measures to combat climate change, but were actually harmful to the climate. A clear example is a barely disguised assistance to the Canadian gas and oil industry, which is being touted today as an investment in technological innovation intended to help reduce emissions. However, the Bloc Québécois, like Québec environmentalists, is not fooled by this. We believe that reducing the carbon intensity of an industry’s emissions is not necessarily the same as reducing actual emissions, since it generally has the effect of increasing the overall level of production. The federal government’s current plans are to increase Canadian oil and gas production until 2045.

    These plans are entirely incompatible with our goal to become carbon neutral by 2050, and must be denounced. The Bloc Québécois would like to change Canada’s energy path to make it compatible with limiting global warming to 1.5°C. We must stop increasing Canada’s oil sands production immediately, and gradually reduce total crude oil production between now and 2030. The government needs to admit that the Trans Mountain expansion project is not needed. The project should be cancelled, and the unused funds should be reinvested in renewable energy projects. Quebecers can count on the Bloc Québécois to monitor recovery-related expenses and expose the federal government’s daily attempts at greenwashing.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Canada’s Conservatives have a detailed plan to secure jobs and the environment and tackle climate change. We will introduce a zero emission vehicle mandate, based on British Columbia’s, requiring 30 per cent of light duty vehicles sold to be zero emissions by 2030. Along with this mandate, we will invest $1 billion to build out electric vehicle manufacturing in Canada and lead the world in battery production, parts manufacturing, micro-mobility solutions and the manufacture of electric trucks. While electric vehicles are quickly growing in popularity, the truth is that the world will still be burning oil and gas for decades to come. We can do our part for the planet by helping ensure that energy is produced as cleanly as possible.

     
     

    Canada’s energy sector has made massive progress in reducing its impact on the planet and we’ll work with the industry to help them go further. Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) is a key part of what will allow our energy sector to become even cleaner and a major building block of the energy transition. We will introduce a tax credit to rapidly accelerate the deployment of CCUS technology in the energy sector and in important industries that have few alternatives to burning fossil fuels, like fertilizer and chemical production. This tax credit will include an early mover bonus for facilities that have CCUS in place before 2030. Additionally, we will adopt a “first five policy” for deploying new emissions reduction technology. One of the significant barriers for new, green technology is that early adopters often pay higher costs as they learn how to apply the technology to real-world situations. To recognize this, we will provide tax relief to the first five facilities that use new technology that provides meaningful emissions reductions and has a high cost to build. A Conservative government will also invest in public transit projects that will put Canadians to work, cut commute times and clean up the environment. Our plan invests in green solutions immediately and builds an economy for a greener future.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Moving towards net-zero emissions as quickly as possible is the greatest economic opportunity in generations. Canada has the chance of a lifetime to become a global leader in limiting climate change, securing our planet’s future, and creating one of the most competitive green economies in the world. The Green Party of Canada has been calling for a non-partisan, collaborative approach to the climate emergency for years. Our Green Future plan is ambitious and doable, and will secure Canada’s sustainable prosperity and ensure a green and just recovery from the pandemic.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Since September 2020, the Liberal government has allocated $53.6 billion to a green economic recovery from COVID-19. This includes historic investments in public transit, active transit, conserving and protecting nature, clean power, supporting the development of Canada’s clean technology sector, retrofitting homes and investing in green and inclusive community buildings, securing jobs to build electric vehicles and buses in Canada, and more. Independent analysis has found Canada to be among the top nations in terms of investing for a green recovery. These investments are in addition to over $60 billion invested in fighting climate change and building a clean economy since 2015.

     

    A re-elected Liberal government would move forward with plans for this historic green spending and invest even more in a green recovery, including, but not limited to: An additional $1.5 billion in the zero-emission vehicle rebate program to help over half a million Canadians purchase a zero emission vehicle; An additional $700 million to add 50,000 new zero emission charging stations; $100 million to retrofit existing buildings to install charging stations; Recognizing the importance of batteries to our current and future economy, we will work to build an end-to-end, sustainable battery supply chain and attract additional zero emissions vehicle manufacturing; $200 million to retrofit large trucks; $250 million to specifically help low-income Canadians get off home-heating oil, on top of existing grants of up to $5,000 for home retrofits and zero-interest loans of up to $40,000 to help Canadians undertake deep retrofits ; Launch a National Net-zero Emissions Building Strategy, which will chart a path to net-zero emissions from buildings by 2050 with ambitious milestones along the way; Launch a community-led net-zero homes initiative that supports projects that pursue multiple concurrent retrofits in a community or neighbourhood, to reduce overall costs.

     

    This initiative will be modeled on the Dutch “Energiesprong” program:

    • $2 billion for a Futures Fund for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador to support workers and create jobs; $50 million for a BC Old Growth Nature Fund to protect more old growth forests; and $1 billion for a strengthened Freshwater Action Plan; 
    • Develop additional investment tax credits for a range of renewable energy and battery storage solutions, to accelerate the deployment of clean energy;
    • Develop an investment tax credit of up to 30% for a range of clean technologies including low carbon and net-zero technologies with input from external experts on what technologies should be covered;
    • Advance a Buy Clean Strategy to support and prioritize the use of made-in-Canada low-carbon products in public and private infrastructure projects;
    • Work with financial experts through the Sustainable Finance Action Council to develop a net-zero capital allocation strategy to move capital into the types of investments needed to accelerate Canada’s transition to a prosperous net-zero future; and
    • Issue green bonds, annually, worth a minimum of $5 billion.

    The Liberal Party is committed to fighting climate change and making the investments needed to cut pollution and grow the clean economy. That’s what Liberal governments have delivered over the past six years, and what a re-elected Liberal government will continue to deliver. Please see our platform for a more inclusive list of our proposed actions.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    This summer, Canadians watched in horror as temperatures repeatedly smashed record levels, and out of control wildfires endangered lives and communities. Smoke from fires hundreds of kilometres away blanketed major cities throughout the country. And excessive heat has taken hundreds of lives. These terrifying scenes serve as a reminder that the climate crisis is here, and that its effects are catastrophically impacting lives and livelihoods.

     

    We have seen with COVID-19 that emergencies need to be tackled urgently and with the political will to do what it takes. Canadians have been doing their part to fight an urgent public health emergency, but the need to tackle climate change has not gone away. We need a government that approaches the climate emergency with that same sense of urgency. Jagmeet Singh is committed to tackling the climate emergency and creating good jobs. We would create over 1 million good new jobs and help build a sustainable recovery by investing in clean energy and building a green infrastructure.

  3. Will you commit to fighting climate change by reducing carbon emissions across all sectors by 60% by 2030 and make it law? Parties were asked
    Will you commit to the legislative, regulatory and carbon pricing measures necessary to reduce Canada’s emissions in all sectors by 60% of 2005 levels by 2030, which is Canada’s fair share of domestic emissions reductions under the Paris Agreement, and carry out regular public audits on climate progress beginning no later than 2023?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Even amidst the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, the key issue of climate change and the green transition project have been at the centre of the Bloc Québécois’ political action since the October 2019 elections.

     

    We deployed sustained political efforts to convince the federal parties to adopt major climate change legislation that would require the federal government to draw up a credible plan for the reduction of GHG emissions and comply with its international climate-related commitments. The Liberals rejected the Bloc Québécois’ proposal.

     

    The Bloc Québécois voted in favour of Bill C-12, but basically for only one reason: because we want to become carbon-neutral by 2050 in line with the Paris Agreement. Setting this target is what Bill C-12 is all about.

     

    We shouldn’t adopt climate legislation just for the sake of doing so. What we should do is establish a strict legal framework that enshrines the objectives in the legislation, shapes climate policy, and fosters real change in governance, institutions and policies by making it mandatory to adopt a concrete action plan that is assessed independently based on its actual ability to meet the objectives.

     

    The Bloc Québécois wants the country to become carbon neutral 2050. However that would first involve achieving a peaking of global emissions, which requires rapid and drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. So the Liberal government should aim for 2030 rather than for 2050.

     

    Moreover, Canada’s plans to increase oil and gas production until 2045 are incompatible with the 2050 carbon neutrality objective.

     

    When announcing targets or plans, the government has systematically failed to back its intent statements with real figures and data. Canada lacks transparency.

     

    The adoption of climate legislation should address this shortcoming by making sure that the targets and the measures for attaining them match the stated objective. Unfortunately, this cannot be achieved through Bill C-12 in its current form. As a result of an amendment by the Bloc Québécois, Bill C-12 will have to be revised in five years.

     

    As part of its proposals to improve Bill C-12, the Bloc Québécois suggested that Canada set a new GHG emission reduction target for 2030 that would be compatible with science and consistent with the commitments of the other advanced economies that are leading the world in the fight against climate change.

     

    The Bloc Québécois was proposing that Canada be as ambitious as Québec in terms of greenhouse gas reductions and adopt the same target as Québec for 2030, i.e., reduce emissions by 37.5% against 1990 base levels by 2030. If we use 2005 as a baseline year, that’s a reduction of about 51.48%. This would naturally be a minimum mandatory target according to the legislation.

     

    In any case, the federal government is still refusing to use the same baseline year as others (like Québec and the 27 European Union member states) to calculate the GHG emission reductions that must be achieved.

     

    By using 2005 rather than 1990 as the baseline year, the federal government is giving Canadian oil and gas companies a 15-year pollution exemption.

     

    If he wishes to speak the truth and be transparent, Justin Trudeau must meet two conditions when he announces climate-related objectives. When announcing a target or objective, he must provide analyses and solid proof that show how the target or objective can be met. He must stop using 2005 as the baseline year and use 1990 instead.

     

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    With Canada’s Recovery Plan, Canada’s Conservatives will meet our Paris climate commitment and reduce emissions by 2030, but without the government taxing working Canadians and driving jobs and investment out of the country. We will empower Canadians to make greener choices by working with the provinces to implement an innovative, national, Personal Low Carbon Savings Account. This will put a price on carbon for consumers without one penny going to the government. It will be completely transparent and engage consumers in the process of building a lower carbon future. Canadians will pay into their Personal Low Carbon Savings Account each time they buy hydrocarbon-based fuel. They will be able to apply the money in their account towards things that help them live a greener life. That could mean buying a transit pass or a bicycle or saving up and putting the money towards a new efficient furnace, energy efficient windows or even an electric vehicle.

     

    Our plan will ensure that all Canadians can do their part to fight climate change, in the way that works best for them, and at a carbon price that is affordable: starting at $20/tonne and increasing to $50/tonne but no further. Even at this lower carbon price, we will ensure that this does not place an excessive burden on low-income Canadians and will protect farmers by ensuring that they have affordable options. Businesses that aren’t subject to the Output Based Pricing System but buy fuel will have a Small Business Low Carbon Savings Account that will operate similarly. We will tie Canada’s industrial carbon price to that of our biggest trading partners - the European Union and the United States, starting with those regions that have carbon markets and expanding as the U.S. creates a national market. This will ensure that we travel the path to our Paris targets with our international partners, reducing the risk that our climate action will shift jobs out of Canada to competitor countries.

     

    We will assess progress after two years and be prepared to set industrial carbon prices on a path to $170/tonne by 2030, in lockstep with our major trading partners. Navius Research, leaders in quantifying the impacts of energy and climate policy, found that our plan would be expected to achieve substantially the same emissions reductions by 2030 as the Liberal plan to meet our Paris commitment, while resulting in a boost to jobs and the economy.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Green Party of Canada’s “Green Future” section of the platform includes achieving net zero emissions as quickly as possible. Policies include: -Ensure a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 60 per cent from 2005 levels by 2030, with clear enforceable targets and timelines starting in 2023 -Achieve net zero emissions as quickly as possible, while aiming to be net negative in 2050.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    Under the previous Conservative government, Canada’s emissions were on a path to be 12% higher in 2030 than they were in 2005, despite Stephen Harper’s promise to lower emissions by 30% by 2030. We knew this wasn’t acceptable and got to work on a serious plan. Today, prior to our election commitments, Canada’s emissions are projected by government officials to be 36% lower in 2030 compared to 2005 levels. The Liberals are committed to achieving Canada’s climate targets. That includes a 40-45% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to 2005 levels, and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Parties promising higher emissions targets have not, based on independent analysis, put forward credible plans to achieve those targets.

     

    The Conservatives would weaken Canada's existing climate target, and rollback climate action advanced by the Liberals. The Liberal government has: A real plan to fight climate change that, for the first time in Canada’s history, meant a government was on track to exceed a climate target; Put a globally-ambitious price on pollution, that rises to $170 per tonne by 2030, while putting more money in the pockets of Canadians; and Enshrined Canada’s net-zero goal into law, including through setting five-year emissions reduction targets to hold the government accountable and regular public progress reports beginning in 2023. A re-elected Liberal government will: Continue to deliver all elements of Canada’s climate plan; and Work with all Canadians and the Net Zero Advisory Body to identify ways to further accelerate climate action that will put us on trajectory to achieve net-zero emissions as soon as possible and no later than 2050.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Partial.

    New Democrats are committed to helping stabilize the global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To that end we will set a target of reducing Canada’s emissions by at least 50% from 2005 levels by 2030, reaching further wherever possible to account for Canada’s fair share To achieve this, we will eliminate fossil fuel subsidies and roll back loopholes that have been given to big polluters. And we will create a Climate Accountability Office, which would provide independent oversight of federal climate progress, engage the public, and make recommendations on how to achieve our goals.

  4. Will you commit to a rapid phase-out of fossil fuels that supports workers, communities, and marginalized groups in the just and fair transition to a sustainable economy? Parties were asked
    Will you commit to taking all possible actions to implement a just and fair phase-out of all fossil fuels, including by applying a climate test that ensures projects help Canada achieve rapid phase-out while supporting workers, communities and marginalized groups?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Environmental policy is not just a public affairs topic among many others: it must be at the forefront of governments’ overall vision and be a priority at the highest levels of government. Gone are the days when the economy and the environment were at odds. The challenge is to build sustainability into economic growth. Wealth mainly stems from natural resources. Therefore, the deterioration of ecosystems comes at a high economic cost. For green growth to exist, each percentage point of GDP increase must come with a reduction in the pressure we exert on the environment.

     

    The overall challenge is, therefore, that of a green transition, which involves transforming our economy into a sustainable model informed by planetary boundaries. The reduction in GHG emissions, the protection of public health and the protection of biodiversity are issues that are inextricably linked and should guide us in our strategic vision throughout the transition.

     

    The federal government talks about wanting to save the planet by fighting climate change while at the same time funding the expansion of the fossil fuel industry using taxpayers’ money. Federal policies, whether those of Stephen Harper or Justin Trudeau, are inconsistent. On the climate front, the Trudeau government makes regular announcements to promote its “goals,” but it rarely puts forward concrete actions and measures that would help achieve those goals.

     

    In Québec, the transition and the fight against climate change lead to prosperity. In fact, we do not produce any oil, but we have renewable resources such as water, wind and forests. We do not build any gasoline-powered cars, but subways, trains and buses. With its electrical industry, Québec has the potential to become North America’s poster-province for electric vehicles. We are extremely well positioned for the 21st century and the energy transition that is taking place.

     

    As a nation, Québec would have everything to gain by speaking on its own behalf on the international stage by participating fully in international environmental agreements, whether they cover climate change or biodiversity protection. Unfortunately, Canada speaks for Québec, but Canada’s interests, as an oil-producing nation, differ from our own. An independent Québec would have an international and environmental policy that is compatible with its interests and those of countries that are leaders in the fight against climate change.

     

    In terms of environmental policy, Québec laws are tougher than Canadian laws. However, the federal government is assuming the right to circumvent Québec laws for undertakings under its jurisdiction. The Bloc Québécois is demanding that the federal government respect Québec laws for federal work and undertakings across the province. In doing so, we are defending our environmental sovereignty.

     

    In addition to ceasing to fund pollution, the federal government has two other tools it can use: taxation and regulations. The Bloc Québécois is proposing that the government actually use them. Two major principles must be applied to environmental policies. First, the polluter pays principle must be applied by putting the right price on pollution. Next, the precautionary principle must be applied to protect human health and the environment by not authorizing activities, products or projects where their potential hazards are uncertain.

     

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.

    Canada’s Conservatives recognize the enormous and essential contributions that the energy sector and its workers make to our country and have contributed to the fight against climate change. Canada has also become a world leader in developing green technologies, particularly in the energy sector, and a Conservative government will support efforts to get these climate-saving technologies to market. We support an energy sector that is working towards net-zero emissions and will accelerate that progress by investing in green technologies like carbon capture, utilization and storage, including direct air capture. By partnering with Canadian innovators to secure Canadian leadership in this important area, we will reduce emissions in Canada and advance technology that Canada could soon be exporting to the world. The Liberals believe that we can only reduce our emissions by “phasing out” entire industries and the jobs that provide a secure living for hundreds of thousands of Canadian families. Conservatives know that we can’t secure a greener future if Canadians don’t have jobs.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Green Party of Canada knows that now is the time to work our international partners to plan a Green Recovery that will build the clean energy economy of the future. A Green Recovery is the greatest economic opportunity of our lifetime. Our global partners understand this clearly; they are working towards this, and it is not too late for Canada to be a part of it. Our plan includes:

    • Ending all production of fossil fuels: -Cancel all new pipeline projects (beginning with TMX)
    • Cancel all new oil exploration projects
    • End leasing of federal lands for fossil fuel production and retire existing licenses
    • Ban hydraulic fracturing (fracking)
    • End all subsidies to the fossil fuel sector
    • Phase out existing oil and gas operations, so that they continue on a declining basis with bitumen production phased out between 2030 and 2035
    • Require federal public investment funds (including the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board) to divest from fossil fuels
    • Ensure companies are held accountable for paying for the costs of cleaning up and restoring land, instead of passing these to the public
    • A Just Transition for workers:
      • Introduce a Just Transition Act before the end of 2021 that takes care of workers and communities during the transition. -Plan for a fair and carefully planned transition of workers towards a decarbonized economy, that protects communities from displacement, and in which affected people (workers in greenhouse gas-intensive industries, Indigenous Peoples, marginalized communities) are leading the preparation of their transition strategies.
      • Replace every high paying fossil fuel sector job with a high paying green sector job through wage insurance and early retirement plans.
      • Reduce wealth inequality in Canada. Ensure that current wealth holders, particularly those in the fossil fuel sector, pay their fair share.
    • Close tax havens and loopholes to redistribute wealth towards communities that have been underinvested in.
    • Introduce laws that incentivize green investment and the creation of green jobs (such as in sustainable transport and energy efficiency), and that disincentivize unsustainable investments (such as by raising taxes on environmentally harmful goods and services).
    • Invest in the cleantech sector and in renewable energy, which will create more, and higher-paying jobs than those lost in the fossil fuel sector.
    • Enact legislation on green jobs training programmes, such as the creation of a youth climate corps; for example, jobs related to ecosystem restoration, particularly for people who have been displaced or severely affected by COVID-19.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes. Fighting climate change and moving to a net-zero future must put workers and communities first. The Liberals are committed to achieving net-zero emissions no later than 2050. That means reducing and eventually phasing-out fossil fuels. We have an ambitious plan to reduce emissions, while supporting workers, their families and their communities. Independent analysis ranked the Liberal Plan the highest of the four national parties, well ahead of the others. The Liberal plan was the only plan found to be “effective” and “affordable”, while the NDP plan was ranked as “largely ineffective” and “unnecessarily costly.”

     

    Climate and economic experts say the NDP plan would cause business activity to move to other countries, resulting in layoffs for Canadian workers and simply moving emissions abroad. The Conservatives would rollback climate action advanced by the Liberal government. Moreover, the Conservative Party’s record of climate inaction and obstruction speaks for itself. A Conservative victory would be a devastating blow for climate action. A re-elected Liberal government will: Support a just transition for workers by:

    • Establishing a $2 billion Futures Fund for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador that will be designed in collaboration with local communities and partners to create jobs and diversify the economy.
    • Launching a Clean Jobs Training Centre to help industrial, skill and trade workers across sectors to upgrade or gain new skills to be on the leading edge of zero-carbon industry.
    • Moving forward with Just Transition Legislation, guided by the feedback we receive from workers, unions, Indigenous peoples, communities, and provinces and territories. These actions build on work the Liberals have already done including making the largest investment in history to train Canada’s workers ($1.78 billion) and establishing a Just Transition Task Force to provide advice on how best to support coal workers and their communities in the transition.
    • Ambitiously reduce emissions from the fossil fuel sector: Cap and cut oil and gas sector emissions.
    • Make sure the oil and gas sector reduces emissions at a pace and scale needed to achieve net-zero by 2050, with 5-year targets to stay on track to achieving this shared goal. And driving down pollution starts with ensuring that pollution from the oil and gas sector doesn’t go up from current levels.
    • Set 2025 and 2030 milestones based on the advice of the Net-Zero Advisory Body to ensure reduction levels are ambitious and achievable and that the oil and gas sector makes a meaningful contribution to meeting the nation’s 2030 climate goals.
    • Cut methane emissions by requiring oil and gas companies to reduce methane emissions by at least 75% below 2012 levels by the broader economy; Maintain position that new or expanded thermal coal mines are not aligned to Canada’s climate commitments.
    • Continue to phaseout conventional coal-fired electricity by 2030 and ban thermal coal exports from or through Canada by 2030.
    • Ensure climate change and workers are factored into decision-making. 
    • Apply a mandatory climate lens to all government decision-making, including Cabinet and Budget decisions. This builds on previous reforms by the Liberal government in the Impact Assessment Act, which ensures climate change impacts are assessed in every federal decision on major projects.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    New Democrats are committed to fighting the climate crisis. We would take aggressive action to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies for profitable oil and gas companies and close loopholes that Conservatives and Liberals have allowed that let big polluters off the hook. We understand that under successive Liberal and Conservative governments, workers have been left to navigate the changing economy on their own. That’s why New Democrats will also launch an aggressive job creation plan that would see a million good new jobs created. This will include new access to training and education for the low carbon future, and targeted support for impacted workers, families, and communities so that the changing economy works for them. Recognizing that marginalized communities are disproportionately impacted by climate-related disasters, a NDP government will also ensure that these same communities benefit from the job-creation and community-building benefits of our renewable energy investments.

  5. Will you stop providing government subsidies and tax breaks to oil and gas corporations, and instead match U.S. levels of investments in climate and environmental justice?  Parties were asked
    Will you commit to ending all public financing and subsidies for fossil fuels, and matching the US administration per capita expenditure on climate and environmental justice?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Bloc Québécois is proposing to change Canada’s energy path to make it compatible with limiting global warming to 1.5°C. The Bloc Québécois is proposing to immediately stop increasing Canada’s oil sands production and gradually reduce total crude oil production between now and 2030. The Bloc Québécois is proposing that the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion project be terminated and will oppose any exports of tar sands oil. The Bloc Québécois is reiterating its historical position against all forms of fossil fuel funding and demands that such funding be abolished immediately. We are proposing to redirect the Québec portion of the amounts invested in fossil fuels and use them to support Québec clean energy projects and research centres, while maintaining the funding level required for a transition away from fossil fuels in Western Canada.

     

     

    The Bloc Québécois will oppose the creation of a pan-Canadian energy corridor that encroaches on Québec territory, regardless of whether such a corridor involves pipelines or electrical transmission lines that are bypassing or competing with those of Hydro-Québec.

     

     

    The Bloc Québécois opposed the TransCanada Energy East pipeline. Under no condition should Québec agree that new gas and oil pipelines, the sole objective of which is to transport oil sands products to Atlantic provinces for export, cross through the province and endanger hundreds of rivers and the St. Lawrence, while we are in the process of an energy transition. Such projects do not create long-term employment nor do they provide economic benefits for Québec.

     

     

    Québec is not a transport route for Canadian gas and oil.

     

     

    The Bloc Québécois unveiled its Recovery Plan in early September 2020.  

     

     

    The result of an extensive Québec-wide consultation, the Bloc Québécois’ plan called for a federal transfer of funds to Québec to help combat COVID-19 in the province’s areas of jurisdiction. It also involved an ambitious green recovery program with a regional focus.

     

     

    Québec depends on forestry. Canada depends on oil. Whereas the Liberal Party is promising to plant trees so that it can extract and export more oil and gas, the Bloc Québécois is working on supporting the development of sustainable forestry. We are focusing on knowledge and innovation to accelerate the transition to a green economy and economic and social development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

     

     

    To transform our economy and develop our growth sectors, the necessary economic recovery following the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is the perfect opportunity to make the right types of investments. To make sure the dollars the government will be investing in the economic recovery to enable a green transition, the wealth and economic growth they create must lead to a reduction in environmental impacts and GHG emissions generated by economic activity. Generating wealth while reducing the impact on the environment is a prerequisite to truly talking about a green recovery.

     

     

    Throughout the electoral campaign, the Bloc Québécois will be presenting concrete proposals on how to achieve gains for Québec, protect and promote the province’s fundamental values and culture, and initiate a green recovery that creates wealth for each of the province’s regions through local innovation.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.

    Canada’s Conservatives have a plan to secure Canada’s economic recovery from the pandemic that will create jobs in every sector and every region of the country. Now is the time to help Canadian workers return to their jobs, not time to eliminate opportunities by removing support for job creators. While we will support economic development in the energy, mining, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, and manufacturing sectors, we will work with each of these industries to reduce emissions in the process.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    • End all subsidies to the fossil fuel sector Establish a high-level Office of Environmental Justice at Environment and Climate Change Canada.
    • Support swift passage of the proposed National Strategy Respecting Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice Act (Bill C-230).

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    A re-elected Liberal government will:

    • Accelerate our G20 commitment to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies from 2025 to 2023;
    • Develop a plan to phase-out public financing of the fossil fuel sector, including from Crown corporations, consistent with our commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2050;
    • End any new direct government support for international carbon-intensive fossil fuel energy immediately;
    • Work with G20 partners to complete a peer review of Canada’s accelerated plan to phase out federal fossil fuel subsidies;
    • Require Canadian crown corporations to publicly disclose climate-related financial risks. Canada’s economic recovery and plan for a clean economy aims to ensure no community is left behind.

     

    Where a just transition for workers and the environmental justice of communities is paramount, we will continue public financing for workers, including those in the fossil fuel sectors. For example, when COVID hit, we financed the clean-up of orphaned oil and gas wells to keep people working in parts of the country that were especially hard hit early in the pandemic. These wells pose pollution risks to the health and wellbeing of rural and Indigenous communities.

     

    As a condition of funding, Canada is requiring that provinces update their oil well regulations to significantly reduce oil well liabilities to ensure abandoned and orphan wells no longer occur and to hold oil and gas companies accountable. When it comes to spending, independent analysis has found Canada to be among the top nations in terms of investing in a green recovery, outpacing the United States. Unlike the United States, Canada has a national price on pollution to cut emissions effectively, where polluters pay and most Canadians receive more money back than they pay, especially lower income Canadians. In addition, a re-elected Liberal government is, in some areas, proposing both spending and regulations for maximum benefit. For example, when it comes to zero emissions vehicles, we are investing in consumer rebates, supporting public transit and school bus fleets in converting to ZEVs, as well as investing in charging stations and supporting manufacturers to create jobs in this space. As well, where the United States has a voluntary goal of 50% of new light duty vehicles sales to be ZEV in 2030, a re-elected Liberal government is proposing a regulated sales mandate of at least 50% in 2030, with 100% by 2035.

     

    A significant part of investing in climate and environmental justice is ensuring the people most vulnerable to the effects of a changing climate have the resources they need to both mitigate and adapt. Canada currently spends more than three times per capita each year on international climate finance for vulnerable people than the United States. A re-elected Liberal government will continue to provide $5.36 billion over the next five years to communities around the world most impacted by climate change, doubling Canada’s previous support. This will increase funds to adaptation and biodiversity in particular, and will also increase grants to make financial support more accessible. At home, the Liberal government has made, and will continue to make, significant investments to fight climate change and grow the clean economy. Since 2015, we have invested more than $100 billion in the fight against climate change.

     

    The Liberal government’s $180 billion infrastructure plan invests in projects that are cleaning our waters, strengthening our energy grids, reducing pollution, and building resiliency to the impacts of climate change for the most vulnerable Canadians who need it most. A re-elected Liberal government will continue to make the investments necessary to transition to the clean economy in a way that prioritizes workers, including through the $2 billion Futures Fund for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador that will be designed in collaboration with local communities and partners to create jobs and diversify the economy.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Jagmeet Singh and the NDP will fulfill Canada’s G-20 commitment to eliminate fossil fuel subsidies and redirect these funds to low carbon initiatives, and make sure that future governments can’t reverse this by putting in place legislation to ban any future oil, gas and pipeline subsidies.

  6. Will you increase investments in protecting and restoring nature to fight and adapt to climate change and benefit biodiversity? Parties were asked
      Will you commit to expanding investments in nature-based approaches to help Canada mitigate and adapt to climate change and benefit biodiversity?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Partial.

    The reduction in GHG emissions, the protection of public health and the protection of biodiversity are issues that are inextricably linked and should guide us in our strategic vision throughout the transition.

     

    The federal government talks about wanting to save the planet by fighting climate change while at the same time funding the expansion of the fossil fuel industry through taxpayers’ money.

     

    The land does not belong to Canada but to Québec and the provinces. Biodiversity in Québec is protected under Québec environmental legislation. The federal government must respect Québec’s environmental sovereignty.

     

    In terms of conservation, the federal government may take action on the properties it owns, on Crown land, in the Territories and in relation to the oceans.

     

    However, we must question the value of the protected areas created by Justin Trudeau’s government.

     

    Justin Trudeau authorized 40 offshore exploratory drilling sites east of Newfoundland in marine refuges that the federal government had itself created. He held a public consultation in the middle of the pandemic in order to bypass the environmental assessment process. He then granted $320 million to offshore oil companies.

     

    The courts have recognized that the protection of endangered species is under federal jurisdiction. However, the federal government’s sole power is to authorize or prohibit activities in a given area. But the protection of biodiversity requires more than mere prohibition. Examples include migration corridors, measures for the regeneration of plant species that animals feed on, and predator management. The real issue is the harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, but the federal government does not have the necessary tools to deal with such a challenge. It would therefore be futile to pin our hopes on the federal government, regardless of the promises made by Canadian political parties in this respect.

     

    With respect to nature-based solutions, the Bloc Québécois does not oppose the planting of trees as such, but decries the fact that this Liberal promise from 2019 is the government’s main strategy for combatting climate change. In addition, the Growing Canada’s Forests program lacks predictability and strategic planning. Besides, how can we expect to attain the greenhouse gas emission reduction target for 2030 with trees that will basically be planted in 2029 and 2030—and will therefore not have reached maturity?

     

    The truth needs to be told: the federal government is subverting the original intent of the nature-based solutions by seeing an opportunity to continue to pollute, by virtue of the fact that it is planting trees. Québec depends on forestry. Canada depends on oil. Whereas the Liberal Party is promising to plant trees so that it can extract and export more oil and gas, the Bloc Québécois is working on supporting the development of sustainable forestry. We are focusing on knowledge and innovation to accelerate the transition to a green economy and economic and social development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Canada’s Conservatives have a detailed plan to prepare Canada for the impacts of a changing climate. First, we will invest an additional $3 billion between now and 2030 in natural climate solutions focused on management of forest, crop and grazing lands and restoration of grasslands, wetlands, and forests. These solutions will sequester carbon, and provide additional benefits for communities and wildlife.

     

    Second, we will appoint a national disaster resilience advisor to the Privy Council Office to advise Cabinet and the Prime Minister’s Office, helping ensure that the government is prepared for future risks. We will implement a national action plan on floods, including establishing a residential high risk flood insurance program to ensure all Canadians are financially protected while avoiding future government bailouts. We will devise a national climate adaptation strategy that addresses existing provincial concerns on flood readiness while leveraging private sector solutions. It will address wildfire and drought exposure in collaboration with farmers, ranchers, and foresters. We will incorporate a mitigation and adaptation lens to the government’s infrastructure investments and develop a natural infrastructure plan that includes the development of a national standard to assess the value of natural infrastructure. Finally, we will invest in technology that can improve the early detection of wildfires and better predict their behaviour.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    • Protect and restore biodiversity and ecosystems.
    • Support Indigenous-led protected and conservation areas and fund stewardship of these lands and waters by Indigenous guardians
    • Implement Canada’s international commitments under the Convention for Biological Diversity and follow-up protocols.
    • Protect a minimum of 30 percent of freshwaters and lands in each Canadian ecosystem by 2030 and 50 percent by 2050, prioritizing carbon-rich ecosystems
    • Halt habitat destruction by 2030 and restore the most negatively affected ecosystems such as wetlands by 2050, prioritizing carbon-rich ecosystems -Expedite recovery plans and implement national and international commitments to reverse species loss
    • Scale-up funding for nature-based solutions -Initiate a national urban biodiversity regeneration strategy to expand green space, address environmental racism and protect urban-sensitive species such as birds
    • Support federal science capacity to inventory and prioritize ecosystems, species at risk, and invasive species

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    A re-elected Liberal government will expand investments and continue to deliver existing investments in nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

     

    The Liberal government took significant action over the past six years including:

    • Making the two largest investments in nature conservation in Canadian history, with investments of $1.3 billion and $3.3 billion;
    • Conserving a land mass equal to 3.5 times the size of Nova Scotia; Exceeding Canada’s goal of protecting 10% of our oceans by 2020, going from less than 1% in 2015 to just under 14% in 2020;
    • Advancing a plan to plant 2 billion trees over the next 10 years with an investment of more than $3 billion, creating 4,300 jobs;
    • Restoring and enhancing wetlands, peatlands, and grasslands to store and capture carbon through an investment of $631 million;
    • Helping farmers reduce emissions through sustainable land management practices, energy-efficient machinery and technology, and using clean energy, with investments of over $365 million;
    • Creating a network of national urban parks, with seven locations across seven provinces already underway;
    • Establishing a Natural Infrastructure Fund with $200 million to support projects like the Toronto Ravine Strategy and Vancouver’s Rain City Strategy.

     

    A re-elected Liberal government would build on these historic accomplishments by:

    • Continuing working toward our goal of protecting 25% of our lands and 25% of our oceans by 2025, and 30% of each by 2030;
    • Increasing the support to farmers to develop and adopt agricultural management practices to reduce emissions, store carbon in healthy soil, and enhance resiliency. Cover cropping, rotational grazing and nitrogen management are all part of a green farming plan for Canada;
    • Establishing at least one new national urban park in every province and territory, with a target of establishing 15 national urban parks by 2030; Investing an additional $200 million in the Natural Infrastructure Fund; Establishing 10 new National Parks and 10 new National Marine Conservation Areas in the next 5 years.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    New Democrats will expand investments in nature-based climate solutions as part of our comprehensive climate plan. We will invest in our Nature agenda that will include restoring and expanding protections for Canada’s watersheds, investing in forest management, and working with farmers to support biodiversity. We will also expand urban national parks and restore urban biodiversity. We will work with climate experts and stakeholders to develop comprehensive nature-based solutions that go hand in hand with other initiatives, like holding big polluters accountable.

  7. Will you develop a new and credible plan to reverse nature loss and meet Canada’s international commitments, including to protect 30% of land and freshwater and 30% of ocean by 2030? Parties were asked
      Will you commit to developing a new, comprehensive strategy and action plan to reverse nature loss that responds to Canada’s commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity including plans to protect 30 percent of Canada’s lands, oceans, and freshwater by 2030?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Partial.

    Under the Constitution, Québec belongs to Quebecers. Its occupancy, use, development and protection are basically subject to Québec laws and regulations and municipal by-laws. The same applies to all other Canadian provinces. In addition, First Nations have inherent rights on their land and Ottawa’s unilateral protection is inconsistent with the recognition of these rights. It is easier to deploy joint management from Québec.

     

    In terms of conservation, the federal government may take action on the properties it owns, on Crown land, in the Territories and in relation to the oceans.

     

    However, we must question the value of the protected areas created by Justin Trudeau’s government.

     

    Justin Trudeau authorized 40 offshore exploratory drilling sites east of Newfoundland in marine refuges that the federal government had itself created. He held a public consultation in the middle of the pandemic in order to bypass the environmental assessment process. He then granted $320 million to offshore oil companies.

     

    The courts have recognized that the protection of endangered species is under federal jurisdiction. However, the federal government’s sole power is to authorize or prohibit activities in a given area. But the protection of biodiversity requires more than mere prohibition. Examples include migration corridors, measures for the regeneration of plant species that animals feed on, and predator management. The real issue is the harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, but the federal government does not have the necessary tools to deal with such a challenge. It would therefore be futile to pin our hopes on the federal government, regardless of the promises made by Canadian political parties in this respect.

     

    With respect to nature-based solutions, the Bloc Québécois does not oppose the planting of trees as such, but decries the fact that this Liberal promise from 2019 is the government’s main strategy for combatting climate change. In addition, the Growing Canada’s Forests program lacks predictability and strategic planning. Besides, how can we expect to attain the greenhouse gas emission reduction target for 2030 with trees that will basically be planted in 2029 and 2030—and will therefore not have reached maturity?

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    Conservatives have a proud history of being strong proponents of conservation and have a strong track record of creating parks and protecting critical habitats. In 2010, the previous Conservative government committed to conserving 17 per cent of terrestrial lands through protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures. As of January 2020, Canada had reached 12 per cent.

     

    We remain committed to reaching this target and will seek to increase our goal to 25 per cent. However, we will remain mindful that there is a significant risk in expressing our ambition strictly in terms of how much area is protected. If we focus solely on area, we will tend to favour the creation of large parks in remote areas and risk making it harder to protect our most endangered ecosystems, which predominantly lie in the southern working landscape. Protecting the southern working landscape presents many challenges but brings many benefits as well. Much of the land is already in productive use, making it harder and more expensive to set aside, but protecting this land is essential: it can significantly benefit local communities and is important for things like flood and drought protection and carbon sequestration.

     

    To conserve lands in all parts of Canada, a Conservative government will:

    • Use remote sensing to identify conservation gaps in the southern working landscape and gather data that can be used to determine the potential for lands to provide ecosystem services.
    • Continue to develop parks and protected areas.
    • Restore funding for the National Wetland Conservation Fund and the Recreational Fisheries Conservation Partnership Program, which Justin Trudeau cancelled. -Support wetlands and watershed protection by supporting the completion of the Canadian Wetland Inventory and exploring ways to protect wetlands on private lands.
    • Provide funding for watershed protection, including restoring funding for the clean-up of Lake Simcoe and maintaining funding for the Great Lakes in Ontario and Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.
    • Create a powerful incentive for agriculture and forestry sectors to protect the environment and sequester carbon by allowing for greater creation of land-based offset credits.
    • Invest an additional $3 billion in natural climate solutions focused on management of forest, crop and grazing lands and restoration of grasslands, wetlands, and forests.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    • Implement Canada’s international commitments under the Convention for Biological Diversity and follow-up protocols.
    • Protect a minimum of 30 percent of freshwaters and lands in each Canadian ecosystem by 2030 and 50 percent by 2050, prioritizing carbon-rich ecosystems
    • Halt habitat destruction by 2030 and restore the most negatively affected ecosystems such as wetlands by 2050, prioritizing carbon-rich ecosystems

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Liberal government took significant action over the past six years to conserve nature and achieve our targets to protect and conserve 25% of our lands and oceans by 2025, and 30% of each by 2030, including:

    • Making the two largest investments in nature conservation in Canadian history, with investments of $1.3 billion and $3.3 billion;
    • Conserving a land mass equal to 3.5 times the size of Nova Scotia;
    • Exceeding Canada’s goal of protecting 10% of our oceans by 2020, going from less than 1% in 2015 to just under 14% in 2020.

     

    A re-elected Liberal government will build on this progress and continue to protect more nature by:

    Lands:

    • Establishing 10 new National Parks in the next 5 years; Establishing at least one new national urban park in every province and territory, with a target of establishing 15 national urban parks by 2030;
    • Permanently protecting more old growth forest in British Columbia with a $50 million BC Old Growth Nature Fund; ​​
    • Working to halt and reverse nature loss by 2030 in Canada and achieving a full recovery for nature by 2050. This includes championing this goal internationally to ensure that the world protects the intact nature required to reverse the biodiversity collapse and protect our climate.

     

    Oceans:

    • Establishing 10 new National Marine Conservation Areas in the next 5 years;
    • Renew and expand the Coastal Restoration fund so that we can restore aquatic habitats;
    • Make new investments in areas like tidal wetlands, seagrass meadows, and riparian habitats that have a high potential to absorb and store carbon; Modernize the Oceans Act to explicitly consider climate change impacts on marine ecosystems and species in regional ocean management with measurable progress indicators tied to management objectives;
    • Create a national, interdisciplinary working group around climate-resilient ocean conservation planning; Expand climate vulnerability work to better inform marine conservation planning and management.
    • Continue to protect wild salmon through historic investments to conserve and restore species.

    Freshwater:

    • Implement a strengthened Freshwater Action Plan, including an historic investment of $1 billion over 10 years. This plan will provide essential funding to protect and restore large lakes and river systems, starting with the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River System, Lake Simcoe, the Lake Winnipeg Basin, the Fraser River Basin, and the Mackenzie River Basin.
    • Invest $37.5 million in the Experimental Lakes Area in northern Ontario, the world’s only large-scale centre for freshwater science and which the Harper government tried to close.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Jagmeet Singh and the NDP will pursue a Nature agenda with a targeted goal of protecting 30% of our land, freshwater, and oceans by 2030. We will launch a 10-year plan to reverse species loss, curb the import and domestic trade of wild animals, and enforce the Species at Risk Act.

  8. Will you invest in Indigenous-led land-use planning, the establishment of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas and their stewardship by Indigenous Guardians; Indigenous-led efforts to restore and steward species-at-risk and habitat; and recognition of and respect for Indigenous knowledge in all aspects of nature conservation in Canada? Parties were asked
       Will you invest in Indigenous-led land-use planning, the establishment of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas and their stewardship by Indigenous Guardians; Indigenous-led efforts to restore and steward species-at-risk and habitat; and recognition of and respect for Indigenous knowledge in all aspects of nature conservation in Canada?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The creation of protected areas is under shared jurisdiction, which depends on the ownership of the land to be placed under the protection of the government or a private voluntary conservation organization in order to preserve biodiversity and the environment and ensure the protection of species. The protection of migratory birds is under federal jurisdiction. With respect to existing federally protected areas, we favour a better approach to involving indigenous peoples in land, plant and wildlife management. With respect to the creation of new protected areas on the ancestral territory of a First Nation, we believe that respect for the principle of self-determination is key since First Nations are nations, and as such, have rights that cannot be violated or circumvented. Those are the inherent rights that the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples upholds. Accordingly, new protected areas must be created in partnership with First Nations, and it will be up to the latter to submit their claims to the governments wishing to create such areas.

     

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    As part of our plan to protect Canada’s lands, oceans, and freshwater, as outlined in the previous question, Canada’s Conservatives will work with Indigenous communities to expand the creation of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas (IPCAs) managed and stewarded by Indigenous Guardians.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    • Support Indigenous-led protected and conservation areas and fund stewardship of these lands and waters by Indigenous guardians
    • Include Indigenous Peoples and their governance systems in all aspects of site selection, management, and decision-making around economic development within the marine and freshwater realms

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    The Liberal government launched the Indigenous Guardians Pilot Program in 2017 and helped establish Canada’s first-ever Indigenous Protected and Conserved Area. We have invested in over 100 Indigenous-led conservation initiatives from coast-to-coast. Budget 2021 further invested $340 million in Indigenous Guardians and Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas. A re-elected Liberal government will: Work with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis partners to support new and expanded Indigenous Guardians programs and establish new Indigenous Guardians Networks; Support Indigenous communities to build capacity to establish more Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas; Advocate for Indigenous rights, in particular regarding land and water stewardship, internationally.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Jagmeet Singh and the NDP will build reconciliation into the heart of our plan to address the climate crisis. We will uphold Indigenous rights to protect lands, waterways, and biodiversity. We will pursue our climate initiatives by making First Nations, Inuit, and Metis peoples full and equal partners. This means we will respect Indigenous peoples as the stewards of their territories and the knowledge that they bring to nature conservation. A New Democrat government will support investments in Indigenous-led nature conservation, land use, and climate planning. We will invest $500 million for Indigenous-led conservation programs, including the Indigenous Guardians Program.

  9. Will you reform Canada’s environmental laws to prevent exposures to toxics and pollution, recognize environmental rights, rigorously control genetically modified animals, ban the most problematic plastics, and hold plastic producers accountable for the wastes they produce? Parties were asked
      Will you (a) proceed with legislative reform of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to prevent exposures to toxics and pollution, recognize environmental rights and rigorously control genetically modified animals, and (b) take action on plastic pollution including banning the most problematic plastics and holding producers responsible for the wastes they produce?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    In Québec, the “right to live in a healthful environment in which biodiversity is preserved” has been protected under the Québec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms since 2006. The federal government may hope to introduce a similar right in the preamble to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), but its legal scope may prove to be very limited. This may prove to be mainly a symbolic victory.

     

    The best way to fight for environmental justice at the federal level is to defend Québec’s environmental sovereignty. As things stand, certain federal infrastructure assets (e.g., wharves, harbours, airports, telecommunication infrastructure, and federal properties) are not subject to our environmental protection legislation or municipal by-laws. Québec laws governing environmental protection and land use planning must apply to all of Québec.

     

    The Bloc Québécois is concerned about geographic disparities in standards of living and access to a clean, healthy environment, and is worried that vulnerable or marginalized populations are more directly affected by such disparities. The Bloc Québécois favours government action to fight the inequities experienced by minority communities in their relationship to the environment.

     

    Human rights in relation to the environment need to be developed. Such rights, as well as the resulting policies, must be universal. Everyone is entitled to them, regardless of their differences. With such rights, we will have powerful legal tools to fight inequity and discrimination, in particular based on origin, language or cultural background, caused by unequal environmental factors such as exposure to pollution or lack of access to resources required to sustain life.

     

    This being said, the best protection against inequalities is still Québec’s social safety net and the defence of our collective choices. Québec has chosen solidarity. In North America, Québec remains the place with the best distribution of wealth. Pan-Canadian standards or strategies are often at odds with our collective choices and are counterproductive. Federal intrusion into social matters is harmful and not suited to the Québec reality.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    We can all agree that we need to reduce the use of single-use plastics, minimize how much plastic ends up discarded, and keep plastic out of our oceans. The current government’s approach has been heavy on slogans but light on action. Simply declaring plastics “toxic” isn’t helping our environment but is driving jobs out of Canada. Rather than showy bans or declarations, Canada’s Conservatives will focus on reducing the use of single-use plastics, ensuring that plastic products are produced in a more environmentally responsible way, promoting a circular economy, and ensuring that plastic waste is responsibly recycled and never ends up in the ocean.

     

    To achieve this, Canada’s Conservatives will:

    • Ban the export of plastic waste. To manage our plastic waste, rather than using other countries as dumping grounds, we will ban the export of plastic waste unless the exporter shows that it will be recycled.
    • Work with international partners to combat oceans plastic. To meaningfully contribute to tackling ocean plastic, we must recognize that plastic is a global problem and that much of the plastic that ends up in the ocean does so because developing countries cannot afford to manage plastic waste properly.
    • Improve value recovery from plastics. We will work with provinces and territories to increase the recovery of clean energy products and other valuable by-products from existing plastics waste. Plastics waste is a problem, but it is also a potential resource. Technology will allow us to turn plastics – even non-recyclable plastics – into valuable products like renewable fuels.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    • Modernize the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
    • Prioritize legislation to modernize the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, prevent exposures to toxins and pollution and recognize the right to a healthy environment; and require labelling of chemicals in consumer products, including cosmetics, cleaners and furniture.
    • Proceed with regulations to ban non-essential, single-use plastics before the end of the year, and expand the list of items to be banned.
    • Champion a legally binding global plastics agreement, ratify the Basel Ban Amendment and strengthen Canada’s rules for plastic waste trade to ensure Canadian plastic waste doesn’t pollute other countries.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    A) A re-elected Liberal government will:

    • Pass a strengthened Canadian Environmental Protection Act to protect everyone, including people most vulnerable to harm from toxic substances and those living in communities where exposure is high. This would recognize the “right to a healthy environment” in federal law for the first time in Canada;
    • By spring 2022, move forward with mandatory labelling of chemicals in consumer products, including cosmetics, cleaning products, and flame retardants in upholstery, that may have impacts on our health or environment; Increase testing of imported products for compliance with Canadian standards to ensure that they are safe for Canadian consumers and that Canadian producers are not at a disadvantage;
    • Strengthen the Pest Control Products Act to better protect our health, wildlife, and the environment;
    • Align with world-leading approaches to transparency when reassessing pesticides already on the market and increase opportunities for independent scientists to have input into the decision-making process; Invest in further government and independent science, including on water and soil monitoring and on the cumulative effects of multiple pesticides on health and the environment;
    • Ensure that the impacts of pesticides on wildlife are fully considered, and support food producers who choose alternative pest management approaches that reduce the need for chemical pesticides; and Rigorously control genetically modified animals.

     

    B) A re-elected Liberal government will:

    • Require that all plastic packaging in Canada contain at least 50% recycled content by 2030;
    • Accelerate the implementation of our zero plastic waste action plan, in partnership with provinces and territories, and ensure Canada’s actions are consistent with other leading jurisdictions;
    • Continue to work with provinces and territories to ensure that it’s producers, not taxpayers, who are responsible for the cost of managing their plastic waste;
    • Work with provinces and territories to implement and enforce an ambitious recycling target for plastic beverage bottles;
    • Strengthen federal procurement practices to prioritize reusable and recyclable products and support our goal of zero plastic waste;
    • Advance our ban on certain, harmful single-use plastics;
    • Introduce labelling rules that prohibit the use of the chasing-arrows symbol unless 80% of Canada’s recycling facilities accept and have reliable end markets for these products;
    • Support provincial and territorial producer responsibility efforts by establishing a federal public registry and require producers to annually report the amount, type, and end-of-life management for plastics in the Canadian economy;
    • Create a new $100 million infrastructure and innovation fund over the next 5 years that will scale- up and commercialize made-in-Canada technologies and solutions for the reuse and recycling of plastics;
    • Build on the Ocean Plastics Charter by working with leading countries on developing a new global plastics agreement.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    New Democrats will strengthen the Canadian Environmental Protection Act – building and improving on the government’s Bill C-28 – to better protect Canadians from toxic substances in everyday products like cosmetics. And we would take further action on plastic pollution including immediately banning single-use plastics and passing legislation to ban the export of plastic waste. We would hold big polluters responsible.

  10. Will you establish an office of environmental justice and equity to address the greater environmental impacts on racialized and marginalized communities and enact an Environmental Bill of Rights? Parties were asked
    Will you establish a high-level office of environmental justice and equity to address the disproportionate impacts of pollution and environmental degradation in racialized and marginalized communities and enact a Federal Environmental Bill of Rights?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

    In Québec, the “right to live in a healthful environment in which biodiversity is preserved” has been protected under the Québec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms since 2006. The federal government may hope to introduce a similar right in the preamble to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), but its legal scope may prove to be very limited. This may prove to be mainly a symbolic victory.

     

    The best way to fight for environmental justice at the federal level is to defend Québec’s environmental sovereignty. As things stand, certain federal infrastructure assets (e.g., wharves, harbours, airports, telecommunication infrastructure, and federal properties) are not subject to our environmental protection legislation or municipal by-laws. Québec laws governing environmental protection and land use planning must apply to all of Québec.

     

    The Bloc Québécois is concerned about geographic disparities in standards of living and access to a clean, healthy environment, and is worried that vulnerable or marginalized populations are more directly affected by such disparities. The Bloc Québécois favours government action to fight the inequities experienced by minority communities in their relationship to the environment.

     

    Human rights in relation to the environment need to be developed. Such rights, as well as the resulting policies, must be universal. Everyone is entitled to them, regardless of their differences. With such rights, we will have powerful legal tools to fight inequity and discrimination, in particular based on origin, language or cultural background, caused by unequal environmental factors such as exposure to pollution or lack of access to resources required to sustain life.

     

    This being said, the best protection against inequalities is still Québec’s social safety net and the defence of our collective choices. Québec has chosen solidarity. In North America, Québec remains the place with the best distribution of wealth. Pan-Canadian standards or strategies are often at odds with our collective choices and are counterproductive. Federal intrusion into social matters is harmful and not suited to the Québec reality.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    Canada’s Conservatives have a detailed plan to ensure that all Canadians can live and work in a clean environment. Our plan tackles climate change, improves water quality, and expands conservation efforts in all parts of the country. While we do not oppose symbolic gestures like affirming the right to a clean environment, we prefer action that will concretely advance our environmental goals that will secure a green future for everyone. Our plan will deliver the action needed now, that balances our economic recovery with our environmental responsibilities.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes,

    • Establish a high-level Office of Environmental Justice at Environment and Climate Change Canada
    • Support swift passage of the proposed National Strategy Respecting Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice Act (Bill C-230)

     

    The Green Party of Canada supports an Environmental Bill of Rights.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    We are committed to advancing environmental justice. The air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, and the land on which we live is central to our health and well-being. Too often, when toxic substances pollute our environment, it is Indigenous, lower-income, or racialized communities that are most likely to suffer the consequences. That’s why a re-elected Liberal government will: Recognize the “right to a healthy environment” for the first time in federal law. Go beyond establishing an office on environmental justice by tabling legislation to require the Minister of Environment and Climate Change to examine the link between race, socio-economic status, and exposure to environmental risk, and develop a strategy to address environmental justice. Identify and prioritize the clean-up of contaminated sites in areas where Indigenous, racialized, and low- income Canadians live. Implement a comprehensive action plan to protect Canadians, including firefighters', from exposure to toxic flame retardants found in household products.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    We recognize that marginalized communities often disproportionately experience the impact of Canada’s climate emergency. We will create an Office of Environmental Justice to address the disproportionate impacts of pollution and loss of biodiversity on low-income, racialized and other marginalized communities. And we would enshrine the right to a healthy environment in a Canadian Environmental Bill of Rights, to ensure all communities can enjoy a guarantee to clean water, land and air.

  11. Will you stop subsidizing nuclear energy, meet international standards for nuclear waste management, and ban radioactive waste imports and exports? Parties were asked
    Will you end all subsidies to the nuclear industry, including Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), meet international standards for nuclear waste management, and ban radioactive waste imports and exports?
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    Yes.

     The solution to Canada’s energy problem is not found in nuclear power. The Bloc Québécois will oppose any nuclear power projects, including the development of small modular reactors, as well as any projects, such as the Chalk River disposal facility near the Ottawa River, that could pose a risk of radioactive contamination for Québec.

     

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    No.

    Nuclear energy is a key part of any credible plan to reduce carbon emissions.

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Institute a ban on further development of nuclear power in Canada.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Partial.

    As it stands today, Canada has one of the lowest carbon electricity grids in the world, with about 82% of the grid being non-emitting. This is in part because of our extensive hydro and renewable energy assets, but also because of nuclear power.

     

    While a Liberal government is prioritizing investments in renewables and transmission, it is important to recognize the role of nuclear in our current energy system and for other uses, such as isotopes, for health applications.

     

    A re-elected Liberal government is committed to achieving net-zero electricity by 2035. We will bring forward a Clean Electricity Standard and advance multi-billion dollar investments for clean power and transmission, both through the government and through the Canada Infrastructure Bank. We are prioritizing investments in strategies and technologies that are commercially available today. Small Modular Reactors are not. That said, recognizing that achieving a net-zero future will require a diverse set of solutions, SMR demonstration projects are eligible for some funding. Decisions about whether to implement SMRs for grid-scale electricity are under provincial jurisdiction, all of which would be required to meet stringent safety and environmental conditions set by Canada’s world-class nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), as well as all other applicable federal and provincial regulatory requirements.


    Meeting International Standards:

    A re-elected Liberal government would continue to modernize policies for the long-term management of Canada’s nuclear waste, including ensuring that Canada meets or exceeds international standards for nuclear waste management. We will build on Canada’s strong policies and ensure that they are based on the best available science, continue to meet or beat international best practices, and reflect the values and principles of Canadians.

     

    In November 2020, the Liberal government engaged Canadians to modernize Canada’s Radioactive Waste Policy. A re-elected Liberal government would move forward with this engagement in order to hear from interested Canadians, including Indigenous and Northern communities, nuclear stakeholders, and civil society. The engagement process would inform a review of Canada’s Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste to ensure that Canada continues to have the highest and most modern nuclear waste regulatory regime in the world. Waste import and exports As a matter of policy, Canada does not import or export nuclear waste.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    Yes.

    Last year, we raised our concerns with the Liberals’ plan for small nuclear reactors. We believe wind and solar energy storage provide a more viable path forward. A NDP government would also re-affirm Canada’s commitment to meet international standards for nuclear waste management. We have previously called for a nuclear waste management to be developed outside of the industry, which the Liberals have ignored.

  12. Additional Comments
    Click on the party logos to see each of their responses.

    BLOC QUÉBÉCOIS RESPONSE

    No additional comments.

    CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    Canada’s Conservatives have a detailed plan to secure the environment and tackle climate change. Other measures aimed at reducing emissions and conservation include:

    • Finalizing and improving clean Fuel Regulations to reduce carbon emissions from every litre of gasoline (and other liquid fuels) we burn, turning them into a true Low Carbon Fuel Standard.
    • Studying the imposition of a carbon border tariff which would reflect the amount of carbon emissions attributed to goods imported into Canada.
    • Developing a National Clean Energy Standard.
    • Implementing a Clean Buildings Plan. -Ending raw sewage dumping.
    • Supporting and encouraging the closure of poorly regulated wildlife markets globally, which often trade in endangered species, that carry an elevated risk of becoming sources for future pandemics.
    • Ending the importation of and trade in wild or exotic animals, including endangered species, and their products that carry an elevated risk of spreading zoonotic diseases.


    The full plan is available at: conservative.ca/plan

    GREEN PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    The “Green Future” section of the Green Party of Canada's platform will be released shortly, as will our full platform for further consultation and reference.

    LIBERAL PARTY OF CANADA RESPONSE

    The extreme heatwaves and wildfires across Canada this summer have underscored the urgency of fighting and adapting to climate change. Canadians need leadership that is prepared to face up to the realities of climate change and to take strong action to prepare for future extreme weather events and keep Canadians safe and healthy.

     

    A re-elected Liberal government will:

    1. Prepare for increased severity and frequency of wildfires. We will dedicate $500 million to protect Canadians with stronger capacity to fight wildfires. This investment will:

      • Train 1,000 new community-based firefighters to ensure we are ready for future fire seasons. Work with provinces and territories to provide firefighters with the equipment they need to fight fires and stay safe, like Canadian-made planes to increase provincial aerial firefighting capacity.
      • Support and expand Indigenous-led fire crews and build capacity to better incorporate Indigenous traditional knowledge strategies in fire management


    2. Protect Our Homes and Communities from the Impacts of Climate Change. Strong action is needed to help Canadians prepare for flood, wildfire, drought, coastline erosion, and other extreme weather events worsened by climate change. We have taken real action to protect our environment and grow our economy, but we know that we need to be bigger and bolder in the fight against climate change. The safety and security of Canadians is at stake.

    A re-elected Liberal government will:

    • Support retrofits and upgrades to protect against extreme weather Complete our work with provinces and territories to develop flood maps for higher-risk areas in the next three years.
    • Create a nation-wide flood ready portal so that Canadians have the information they need to make decisions on where and how to build their homes and communities, and how they can protect their homes and communities from flood risk.
    • Take action to protect homeowners who are at high risk of flooding and don’t have adequate insurance protection, by creating a low-cost national flood insurance program.
    • Develop strategies, in partnership with the insurance industry and private sector to lower insurance premiums by identifying cost-effective ways to better protect communities and homes from climate impacts and save people money.
    • Expand the office of the National Security and Intelligence Advisor to keep Canadians safe as climate change increasingly impacts our domestic and global contexts. Create a Climate Adaptation Home Rating Program that will be developed as a companion to the EnerGuide home energy audits. Expand the eligibility requirements of the CMHC deep home retrofit program and Canada Greener Home Grants to include more climate resilience measures.
    • Finalize Canada’s first-ever National Adaptation Strategy by the end of 2022, which will set clear targets and indicators to measure progress on—and strengthen the business case for—adaptation.
    • Finalize and apply a climate lens to ensure climate adaptation and mitigation considerations are integrated throughout federal government decision- making. Work with provinces, territories, and farmers— including Indigenous and young farmers—to update business risk management agriculture programs to fully integrate climate risk management, environmental practices, and climate readiness.

     

    Note on Gender and Diversity Impact: The indirect and long-term benefits of the measures outlined in this survey are expected to be gender balanced as climate change directly and indirectly affects the health and wellbeing of all individuals and communities. Nonetheless, coastal, remote, northern, and Indigenous communities, as well as minority groups, low-income communities, women, youth, and elderly people are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

     

    Climate change is a global reality, and our policies will have an indirect impact on individuals internationally. For example, according to the United Nations Development Program, 80% of people displaced by climate change are women. We are committed to facilitating a just and equitable transition to clean growth. 75% of workers in the mining, oil and gas sectors are men. Our green jobs and clean tech investment plan applies an intersectional lens so that women, Indigenous people, and youth can benefit from these opportunities. Census data shows that women, people of colour, and low-wage workers are the predominant transit riders, so accelerating major public transit projects would be directly beneficial to them. Those projects will be developed using an intersectional lens to ensure accessibility, safety, and fairness.

    NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY RESPONSE

    No additional comments.